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Pre-Schoolers & School-Age

Achalasia is a rare disease that makes it hard to swallow foods and liquids. In achalasia, there is a problem with the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus).
ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.
A child with autism appears to live in his or her own world, showing little interest in others and a lack of social awareness.
Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world.
If a person has severe hearing loss, a cochlear implant may help. A cochlear implant is different from a hearing aid. A hearing aid makes sounds louder and helps someone who has some hearing loss. But a cochlear implant can help a person with very little or no hearing (partial or complete deafness).
Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.
A person with fluency disorder has trouble speaking in a fluid or flowing way. They may repeat parts of words (stutter) or speak fast and jam words together (clutter).
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the U.S. is an autoimmune disorder called Graves’ disease. Children can develop Graves’ disease, although it's less common in kids than adults.
Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone. The condition is more common in adults. But it’s the most common thyroid disorder in children. Not enough thyroid hormone leads to signs such as slow growth, lack of activity, and poor performance in school.
As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.
A spine affected by kyphosis has a forward curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the upper back area, giving an abnormally rounded or "humpback" appearance.
A child with a language disorder may have a difficult time understanding written and spoken words and trouble speaking.
Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.
School phobia can be seen in young children going to school for the first time, in older children who fear a bully or mean teacher, and in children who are anxious about leaving their parents.
Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
A child with a speech sound disorder may have trouble saying certain sounds and words beyond the age expected.
Stuttering is a speech problem. The normal flow of speech is disrupted. A child who stutters repeats or prolongs sounds, syllables, or words. Stuttering is different from repeating words when learning to speak. Stuttering may make it difficult for a child to communicate with others.
Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.
Detailed information on the most common types of ringworm, including diagnosis and treatment
Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting, or accidental urination in children who should be able to control their bladder. Girls usually have bladder control before boys do. The diagnosis of enuresis is for girls older than 5 and for boys older than 6.
Most children rely on backpacks to carry books and supplies to and from school and activities. But a backpack that’s too heavy or doesn’t fit right can cause harm.
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