The exchange lists show you portions of food that equal 1 exchange. Foods are divided into food lists. The foods on each list are called exchanges because they have a similar number of calories, protein, carbohydrate, and fat content. Foods from each list can be traded or "exchanged" for any other food on the same list because they all have a similar exchange value. A dietitian will help you plan how much food your child should eat at each meal and from what lists the foods should come from.
At first you should measure your food until you are able to make good estimates about serving sizes. The following list is a sample of foods found on the exchange lists.
For more information, you can buy the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning from:
The American Diabetes Association
P.O. Box 930850
Atlanta, GA 31193
Starch List: One starch exchange contains about 15 grams of carbohydrate, 3 grams of protein, 0 to 1 grams of fat, and 80 calories. A starch exchange is sometimes called a carb exchange.
Examples of 1 starch (carb) exchange are:
The vegetables included in the starch exchanges include:
Fruit List: 1 fruit exchange contains about 15 grams of carbohydrate and 60 calories.
Examples of one fruit exchange are:
Milk List: 1 milk exchange contains about 8 grams of protein and 12 grams of carbohydrate. Items on the milk list are divided into fat-free, reduced fat, and whole milk depending on the number of fat grams in the exchange.
Examples of 1 milk exchange are:
Fat-Free (0 to 3 grams of fat)
Reduced-Fat (5 grams of fat)
Whole Milk (8 grams of fat)
Vegetable List: One vegetable exchange has 5 grams of carbohydrate, 2 grams of protein, no fat, and 25 calories. One-half cup of cooked or a cup of raw vegetables is a good measure for 1 exchange of most vegetables. Raw lettuce may be taken in larger quantities, but salad dressing usually equals 1 fat exchange.
Other Carbohydrates List: One "other carbohydrate" exchange has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Many of these foods count as a starch exchange and one or more fat exchanges.
Meats are divided into very lean meats, lean meats, medium-fat meats, and high-fat meats. People with diabetes should try to eat more lean and medium fat meats and stay away from the high fat choices.
The Very Lean meat group includes foods that contain 7 grams of protein, 0 to 1 gram of fat, and 35 calories for 1 exchange. Examples include:
The Lean meat group includes foods that contain 7 grams of protein, 3 grams of fat, and 55 calories for 1 meat exchange. Examples include:
The Medium-Fat group includes foods that have 7 grams of protein, 5 grams of fat, and 75 calories for 1 meat exchange. Examples include:
The High-Fat foods have 7 grams of protein, 8 grams of fat, and 100 calories for 1 meat exchange. This group includes:
Fat List: Fat is necessary for the body and is particularly important during periods of fasting (overnight), when it is very slowly absorbed. 1 fat exchange contains 5 grams of fat and 45 calories. The monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are better for us than saturated fats. The fat list includes:
One exchange of monounsaturated fats equals:
1 exchange of polyunsaturated fats equals:
1 exchange of saturated fat includes:
A free food contains less than 20 calories or less than 5 grams of carbohydrate per serving. If the food has a serving size listed on its package, it should be limited to 3 servings spread throughout the day. Examples of free foods include:
Many foods, such as casseroles, are mixed together. Your dietitian can help you figure out how many exchanges to count for combination foods. For example: