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Patent Foramen Ovale: References

Wilson, W, Taubert, KA, Gewitz, M, et al. Prevention of Infective Endocarditis. Guidelines From the American Heart Association. A Guideline From the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 2007; 115 published online April 19, 2007.

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th Edition. By Robert M. Kliegman, MD, Bonita M.D. Stanton, MD, Joseph St. Geme, Nina Schor and Richard E. Behrman, MD. Saunders. 2007

Khositseth, A, Cabalka, AK, Sweeney, JP, et al. Transcatheter Amplatzer device closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale in patients with presumed paradoxical embolism. Mayo Clin Proc 2004; 79:35.

Hara, H, Virmani, R, Ladich, E, et al. Patent foramen ovale: current pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical status. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46:1768.

Wu, LA, Malouf, JF, Dearani, JA, et al. Patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke: current understanding and management options. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:950.

Kerut, EK, Norfleet, WT, Plotnick, GD, Giles, TD. Patent foramen ovale: a review of associated conditions and the impact of physiological size. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38:613.

Hagen, PT, Scholz, DG, Edwards, WD. Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts. Mayo Clin Proc 1984; 59:17.

Meissner, I, Whisnant, JP, Khandheria, BK, et al. Prevalence of potential risk factors for stroke assessed by transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography: the SPARC study. Stroke Prevention: Assessment of Risk in a Community. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74:862.

Pinto, FJ. When and how to diagnose patent foramen ovale. Heart 2005; 91:438.

Kerr, AJ, Buck, T, Chia, K, et al. Transmitral Doppler: a new transthoracic contrast method for patent foramen ovale detection and quantification. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36:1959.

Lynch, JJ, Schuchard, GH, Gross, CM, Wann, LS. Prevalence of right-to-left atrial shunting in a healthy population: detection by Valsalva maneuver contrast echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1984; 53:1478.

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