A fever means the body temperature is above normal. You have a fever if your oral temperature is over 99.5°F (37.5°C).
The body's average temperature when it is measured orally is 97.6°F (36.5°C), but it normally changes during the day. Oral temperature normally can change from a low of 95.8°F (35.5°C) in the morning to a high of 99.4°F (37.5°C) in the late afternoon. Mildly increased temperature (100.4° to 101.3°F, or 38° to 38.5°C) can be caused by exercise, heavy clothing, a hot bath, or hot weather. Warm food or drink can also raise the oral temperature. If you suspect such an effect on your temperature, take it again in a half hour.
Fever is a symptom, not a disease. It is the body's normal response to infections. Fever helps fight infections by turning on the body's immune system. Most fevers (100° to 104°F, or 37.8° to 40°C) are not harmful. Most are caused by viral illnesses such as colds or flu. Some are caused by bacterial illnesses such as strep throat or bladder infections.
Most fevers with viral illnesses last for 2 to 3 days. In general, the height of the fever doesn't relate to the seriousness of the illness. How sick you feel is what counts. Fever does not cause permanent harm until it reaches 108°F (42°C). Fortunately, the brain's thermostat keeps untreated fevers below this level.
Drink extra fluids. Cold drinks are helpful. Body fluids are lost during fevers because of sweating.
Dress in light clothing because most heat is lost through the skin. During the time you feel cold or are shivering (the chills), wrap yourself in a light blanket.
If the fever is less than 102°F this is the only treatment needed. Fever medicines are not necessary.
Remember that the fever is helping your body fight the infection. Take medicine only if your fever is over 102°F (39°C) and you are also uncomfortable. You should take either acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
Acetaminophen: Take any one of the acetaminophen products: Tylenol, Anacin-3, Panadol, or Tempra. The dosage is 2 tablets (650 mg) every 4 to 6 hours. 2 hours after they are taken, these drugs will reduce the fever 2° to 3°F (1° to 1.5° C). Medicines do not bring the temperature down to normal unless the temperature was not very high before the medicine was taken. You will need to take repeated dosages of the drugs because the fever will go up and down until the illness runs its course. Do not take more than 5 doses in 24 hours.
Ibuprofen: Ibuprofen is available in 200-mg tablets without a prescription as Advil, Motrin, etc. The dosage is 2 tablets (400 mg) of ibuprofen every 6 to 8 hours. When you use ibuprofen, stop taking acetaminophen.
Avoid aspirin: Doctors recommend that anyone under age 21 years) not take aspirin if they have any symptoms of a cold or viral infection, such as a fever, cough, or sore throat. Aspirin taken during a viral infection, such as chickenpox or flu, has been linked to a severe illness called Reye's syndrome.
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