Deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or clots in large veins, can sometimes lead to a long-term complication called post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). This can lead to severe disability, recurrent clots, and poor quality of life.


Pain and swelling are the most common symptoms. Other symptoms include pins and needles, heaviness, tightness, tired limb, skin redness, limited endurance, visible veins on the skin, and rarely skin ulcers.


The most widely used instruments to diagnose and rate PTS are the Mano-Johnson Instrument and the modified Villalta Scale. Imaging (CT, MRI, venography, US, IVUS) also plays a role in determining reversible causes of PTS.


Post-thrombotic syndrome's symptoms and the root cause can guide treatment, ranging from compression stockings to repair of occluded veins.

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